Psychological and pedagogical aspects

Slovenská verzia 

4. Area - Psychological and pedagogical aspects


Evaluation criteria *

(If a digital learning aid meets the criteria in the given sub-area, it is assigned the maximum number of points shown in brackets! In case it meets the criteria only partially, the score is adequately reduced. If the evaluator is not able to assess objectively the applicability or inapplicability of any of the determined criteria, such criterion is skipped and the respective maximum number of points shown in the brackets will not be included in the overall score.)

Maximum number of points

4.a Taking into account the current level of cognitive development of learners and stimulation of their cognitive development

4.a.1 (ISCED 1)

  • examples of terms, processes, and relations are presented in a demonstrative, illustrative, figurative form  (e.g. pictures, demonstrative schemes, realistic video sequences, simulations, animations, etc.), (0–8 points)
  • tasks including data processing and results presentation in a graphical form, (0–5 points)
  • tasks focused on learning new terms and their mutual relations based on analyses, comparisons, classification, and abstraction of term properties, (0–7 points)
  • simple attempts or experiments in the virtual environment containing the demonstrative components. (0–4 points)

4.a.2 (ISCED 2 and ISCED 3a)

  • opportunities to consider possible, hypothetical, and real situations and possibilities and also the consequences of their update (solution of tasks with unreal input data), (0–8 points)
  • complex tasks requiring systematic solution procedures, search through the possibilities, creation of strategies, probability-based thinking ..., (0–5 points)
  • mediation of information requiring understanding, interpreting of, and thinking about abstract terms, ideas, and relations, (0–4 points)
  • opportunities to search and formulate abstract relations (write an equation, express the relation between the variables and the constants in a simple proportion, construct the formula for the calculation of properties of certain objects, analyze various mathematical, physical, chemical, economical, and other formulas, draw the structure of the problem situation, alternative strategies of the problem solving, etc.), use them when considering and solving the problem. (0–7 points)


4.b Taking into account the activity level in the learning activities

  • learning activities focused on a meaningful, logical organizing of terms, ideas, and visual components mediated by the learning software (active information processing, structuring it into a comprehensive understanding of the acquired contents, which is demonstrated by deducting meaningful, logical relations, applications, etc.), asking verification questions to verify the level of meaningful learning, (0–4 points)
  • learning activities focused on presenting examples of acquired terms, related details, relations to other terms and concepts that were the subject of previous learning, (0–3 points)
  • creation of more complex interdisciplinary relations and applications of the curriculum content in everyday life conditions, verification questions and tasks to verify the aforesaid relations and applications, (0–2 points)
  • requirements for active information processing and interpretation, using the previous knowledge and thinking (e.g. formalizing the structures of one’s own knowledge in form of term maps, thinking about consequences of manipulations, changes in the environment on the level of thought experiment, manipulations in the virtual environment, etc.), (0–3 points)
  • possibility to solve tasks and problems as the source of new knowledge, i.e. application of learning on the individual or the group levels using the cooperative learning. (0–3 points)


4.c Taking into account the constructiveness in learning activities


  • learners can verify the degree of curriculum content acquisition in terms of understanding it in relation to the previous learning and knowledge (e.g. in form of tasks to supplement the term map with other components and describe the relations between the components, solve the tasks to interpret the relations between the terms, concepts, ideas, formulas, etc. (0–3 points)
  • the feedback is sufficiently frequent, in terms of understanding the curriculum content it is instructive  and induces higher cognitive processes of learners (applying creativity,  critical thinking when considering and solving a problem, self-regulation – possibility to verify  the level of one’s own knowledge, setting the learning objectives, selection of learning procedures, etc.), (0–3 points)
  • possibility to solve tasks and problems that reveal basic explanatory concepts and mechanisms of the curriculum content, (0–2 points)
  • learners’ possibility to intensify their understanding of the curriculum content by active cognitive activities with regard to their own needs and interests (applying the gained knowledge and skills in other cognitive and practical contexts). (0–2 points)


4.d Taking into account the intentionality in learning activities


  • learners can select their own learning objectives, (0–3 points)
  • they can choose tasks and problems, management of which relates to the learning objectives selected by them and takes into account their aspiration level corresponding to the task difficulty, (0–3 points)
  • learners can express and satisfy their cognitive needs and interests activated in them during the study  (extend, intensify their knowledge and skills in other areas or activities). (0–4 points)


4.e Taking into account the authenticity in learning activities

  • learners acquire the curriculum content in sufficiently elaborated connections with reality and its practical application, (0–3 points)
  • learners can solve tasks and problems in real and practical contexts, (0–4 points)
  • learners acquire not only the learning contents, procedures, but also their sources, either by their own exploration or mediated via references to work of scientists or explorers. (0–3 points)


4.f Taking into account the social nature in learning activities

  • possibility for learners to communicate, cooperate in the process of acquisition of the mediated meaningful information, (0–5 points)
  • possibility for learners to cooperate in solving tasks, problems, or projects, including learning through exploration. (0–5 points)


4.g Taking into account the requirements following from the behavioural learning theory

  • providing the continuous (immediate) and final feedback that informs the learners about the correctness or faultiness of their solutions, (0–3 points)
  • the feedback includes instructions informing the learners on the subsequent procedure and are of the motivation value for them; (0–2 points)
  • the program enables the learners make corrections and evaluate, (0–2 points)
  •  opportunities for learners to attend to learning and game-based educational activities which are attractive for them, after they manage the compulsory learning activities, (0–2 points)
  • while solving more complex tasks, in irregular intervals (depending also on a learner’s previous success) the software evaluates the correctness of the procedure; in case the procedure or the solution is correct, it provides substantiation; in case it is not correct, it provides a learner with the guidance for further learning or a procedure, (0–3 points)
  • an alternative in solving more complex tasks (objectives) is their segmentation in partial  tasks (objectives); an optimal situation is when the segmentation takes into account individual differences in learners’ knowledge, skills, and abilities; work results corresponding to the objectives and tasks are then evaluated by the software for correctness and solution requirements and the information on a subsequent procedure is presented, (0–2 points)
  • software  enables learners to learn how to distinguish between various stimuli, objects, processes, terms, concepts  (e.g. various species of plants and animals, chemical reactions, mental functions, etc.), provides learners with the distinguishment principles (or distinguishment signs), assigns tasks containing distinguishment and provides the correctness feedback, (0–3 points)
  • software  enables learners to learn how to generalize various stimuli, objects, processes, terms, concepts (e.g. learners search for common signs of particular object groups, create categories and subsequently define them; learners think about common signs of different situations and the method of responding to these situations, etc.), it can also provide the learners with the principles to be applied in generalization, assign the generalisation tasks, after each generalization provide the learners with the correctness feedback. (0–3 points)


4.h Taking into account the requirements following from the cognitive architecture and its function  (applying the cognitive learning theory)

  • simplicity, intuitiveness of learning activities in the software operation,
  • when providing the information in electronic form, use a verbal and visual form thereof, (0–2 points)
  • text (verbal) information and conversational information should be interconnected, as for time and space, with the picture information, (0–2 points)
  • possibility for learners to enable and disable text or speech accompanying the pictures, animations, etc., (0–2 points)
  • in the digital learning material (program) there should not be any redundant accompanying information, from the learning point of view, (0–2 points)
  • respecting the perception principles (clear detachment of a figure – information of the substantial importance from the background – the accompanying information) using a shape, colour, size, intensity of stimuli, by means of schemes etc., (0–2 points)
  • presentations containing picture information should include verbal information provided in form of a speech and not a written text, (0–2 points)
  • multimedia presentations in which visual materials are accompanied with speech, should not contain text legends or explanations, (0–2 points)
  • ensure balance and functionality of static and dynamic elements (e.g. animations should be included only if they are functional – i.e. the objective is to provide demonstrative information of a procedural nature that contributes to the meaningful learning and not to distract attention towards efficient information, but of minor importance), (0–2 points)
  • provide learners with the preliminary information on the content and form of a multimedia presentation and its components as the precondition for production of simple schemes of acquired terms and concepts, (0–2 points)
  • enable learners to select verbal or visual information in the  multimedia presentation, (0–2 points)
  • enable learners to select the presentation speed, interrupt the presentation, or repeat any of its components, (0–2 points)
  • enable learners to select the content’s or a task’s difficulty level, (0–2 points)
  • enable learners to select the methods and time of topic revision. (0–2 points)


4.i Taking into account individual differences in the level of general, academic intelligence

  • possibility to set several degrees of the curriculum content difficulty, reflecting various levels of cognitive functions of learners, (0–8 points)
  • possibility to set the working speed, working time, content scope, and tasks for individual learners. (0–7 points)


4.j Taking into account individual differences in learning and cognitive styles of learners

  • possibility to select visual or verbal modality of the provided information, 
  • when learning from the multimedia, enable the preference of visual or verbal modality of the information (or the possibility of more or less intensive highlighting or suppression of the information of certain modality), (0–2 points)
  • representation of the sequence, hierarchy, structure of learning components and procedures that facilitate structuring of the curriculum content and learning among learners with analytical cognitive style, (0–2 points)
  • interconnection of learning components, curriculum segments, and concepts by means of  hypertext links, facilitating thus the formation of more complex cognitive representations of the curriculum content among learners with holistic learning style, (0–2 points)
  • combination of procedures based on the programmed learning (learning material is structured into smaller segments gradually presented to a learner) with simulations, modelling, and experiments in the virtual environment (learners can use the experience-based learning, adjust parameters of graphical representation of a process or a phenomenon, and monitor the consequences of their own manipulations, test the hypotheses, make experiments, learn by exploration), (0–2 points)
  • possibility to select a working speed, working time, content scope, type and difficulty level for individual learners. (0–2 points)


4.k Taking into account individual differences depending on the profile of multiple

  • content variety, diversity of  learning activities of learners using their language skills and logical and mathematical skills, spatial imagination, physical skills, social abilities and skills, self-knowledge and self-regulation and occasionally also musical abilities and skills, (0–3 points)
  • assign tasks that stimulate learners to perform various activities (self-study, social interaction, performance of manual or other physical actions, etc.). (0–2 points)


4.l Taking into account individual differences following from different types of preferred learning motivation of learners

  • for learners with prevailing performance motivation – provision for the feedback that enables learners to evaluate and compare their performance from different points of view, set the program parameters (various difficulty levels, various time intervals for the work with the program), (0–2 points)
  •  for learners with prevailing cognitive motivation – provision of hypertext links to extended the curriculum content, provision of various problems and creative tasks, solution of which satisfies the cognitive interests and enriches their knowledge and skills, (0–2 points)
  • for learners with prevailing social motivation – possibility within the program to cooperate, communicate with other persons (teacher, co-learners, parents, experts, etc.), possibility for other persons to obtain the feedback on a learner’s results, as well as the possibility for learners to compare themselves with other learners in terms of the curriculum content acquisition. (0–3 points)



Altogether for area 4